Facts about the Hani Culture
Articles in Ethnic China
the Hani nationality: They inhabit mountain areas
with warm climate and abundant rains.
ancient society: Hani Apeicongpopo is a poem
of that relates their migrations from the land of their ancestors, until
their current territory in the south of Yunnan.
of Hani History: It is possible that during the
years between the fall of Nanzhao and the Mongol conquest of Yunnan,
the Hani formed a unified and independent political entity
nationality Main Gods: They worship their ancestors
and the forces of nature. They think that every natural object of the
nature has its spirit.
nationality Daily Life: Their terraced fields
follow the contour of the mountains in one of the most impressive landscapes
created by human work.
Customs of the Hani: When the child is born the
person helping the mother will not pick it up until it has cried three
times, the first for a life span, the second for the whole village and
the third as a request of help.
life and marriage of the Hani nationality: In
the past young Hani young enjoyed sexual freedom before marriage. They
met usually in musical gatherings.
festivals of the Hani: The Hani have many spiritual
ceremonies to be carried out along the year.
festival of the Hani: The Amatu Festival is one
of the most important for the Hani. It is a kind of homage to the village's
Yiche (Yicyu) branch of the Hani Nationality: There
are three main characteristic that differentiate the Yiche people: the
short dressed by the Yiche women, their retarded marriage and sexual freedom,
and the specill way they celebrated the Kuzhazha Festival.
religion of the Hani Yiche: They believe that people
are eminently spiritual beings that have twelve souls. After death the
soul of people becomes a spirit.
marriage of the Aini - Akha: when the boys reached
puberty age, they usually moved to live in a small hut near their parents'
home that was called the "Flowers'
song of the Aini - Akha: The singers express in
this long song their best whishes to the newlyweds; with their hope that
the new formed couple will be auspicious they transmit also a detailed
account of the traditional way of life.
Materials about the Hani- Akha
Selena Ahmed, John R. Stepp, Robban A. J. Toleno, and Charles M. Peters. Increased Market Integration, Value, and Ecological Knowledge of Tea
Agroforests in the Akha Highlands of Southwest China.
This study assesses the persistence and change of traditional land use patterns and ecological
knowledge in response to expanded commercialization of tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica (L.) Kuntze
Theaceae in an indigenous Akha (Hani) community in the midlevel montane forests of southwest Yunnan,
China... They have resisted state reforms calling for the cultivation
of high-intensity plantations and introduced cultivars. Consequently, they have benefited from price
premiums through niche market networks for tea sourced from agroforests and proprietary landraces not
available to other communities disempowered by market cycles.
as Portrayed in Thai Penny horribles
a result of the success of khon phu khao many more films of the same type
were made, and in partieular Phaitun Ratanon's ido, 1984, which offered
an even more stereotyped vision of the same Akha people.
Language Preservation and Maintenance Hani Language and Literacy
Through the Hani literacy project, we have obtained some exciting achievements:
Firstly, some Hanis have changed their attitude toward their own language
and culture. They have witnessed some practical activities and cultural
events they organized for themselves, in which they have realized their
own nationality responsibilities and prides.
as cheap labor: Minority and touristic stage.
study examines whether ethnic tourism positively affects the ethnic minorities,
both from the economic and social perspectives.
A. von Geusau.- Akha/Yunnanese
Chinese symbiosis and strategic identity in the Southeast Asian mountainous
relations between the Hani/Akha, and the Chinese in Yunnan, are complex.
Both the Hani, and the closely related Zanyi or Akha people, consider
themselves as having been marginalized into the mountainous parts of the
Southern Yunnanese border areas by Tai warrior types of people.
A. von Geusau.- General
Introduction: The Akha/Zaqnyiq Archaic Oerzar text on The Life-Cycle of
People, Animals and Plants.
In this volume the reader will find a transcription of
the orally transmitted archaic Akha/Zaqnyiq text, called oerzar, literally
meaning old words of wisdom. The text deals with the life
cycle of people, animals and plants.
A. von Geusau.- A
comparative field-study between two Akha Tourist villages: Tsjaw Pakha
Kao and Saen Chareon Kao Akha
the last 10-15 years an increasing number of ethnic minority mountain
villages, Including Akha, have tried to open up for tourists, hoping to
gain some income from Tourism, including handicraft sales. As for the
Akha, this is in sharp contrast with the past, when they were reluctant
to show their sophisticated ¡°internal life, ceremonies and
knowledge¡± to the outsider, fearing to be abused.
Hayden and Ralana Maneeprasert.- Feasting
Among the Akha: The 1996 Report
is frequently viewed as extremely important in emic perceptions. And feasting
can be viewed as having roots extending far back into primate origins
where food sharing is often used as a means to establish sexual relationships
or acknowledge dominance relationships. Our purpose in this analysis is
to try to place a particular cultures feasting behavior in the context
of cultural ecology.
Ann Kammerer.- Territorial
Imperatives: Akha Ethnie Identity and Thailand's National Integration
attempt to formulate an analytical approach towards ethnie identity that
1 hope will illuminate the current confrontation of mountain minorities
and the consolidating nation-states of continental South-East Asia.
cultural and community property rights : A basis for social justice. The
Akha and how they are affected in Thailand
paper describes the pressures on the Akha ethnic minority in Thailand,
proposing that lack of political and community property rights is detrimental
to their well-being and the environment, which their culture has adapted
to over the centuries.
Migration and Cross-Border Networks: A Deconstruction of the Akha Identity
in Chiang Mai
the last twenty years, owing to the dramatic improvement in road transport
it has become
much easier for the Akha to access lowland areas. .. A third, urban-based
generation has already emerged who have grown up in the city, and they
have few opportunities or need to go up to the mountains. The number of
the younger generation (between the ages of 15 and 25) who have no experience
of working in the rice fields is increasing rapidly
to Record and Pass On the Oral Traditions of the Akha and Hani Peoples.
illiterate Akha and Hani peoples have preserved their identities through
worship of their ancestors and strict common laws. Their ceremonies and
festivals offer glimpses of their practices and Taoist philosophy toward
well-balanced coexistence between people and nature and of their ancestor
Wealth, Pigs and Coca Cola: fareng Tourists in an Akha Village
is a preferred isolation in which we live. The road has been sabotaged
to make it difficult for police in search of people engaged in activities
like smoking opium, distilling alcohol and so on. This way the residents
are more likely to be left in peace. The village headman also supports
this isolationist policy.
Technologies of Terraced Rice Cultivation in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan,
China (Asian and African Area Studies, 6 (2): 173-196, 2007)
study aims to clarify how terraced rice cultivation has been developed
and sustained over many years in the Ailao Mountains from the viewpoint
of agricultural technology. In addition to the protection of terraced
paddy fi elds, the unique practice of year-round irrigation plays many
important roles, including storing water, maintaining favorable soil conditions
for rice growth and providing a habitat for various edible aquatic animals.
C. Sturgeon.- Forest
Creators, Forest Destroyers: Akha Land Use in Xishuangbanna
paper focuses on Akha strategies for land use and livelihood in this upland,
forested region. Akha engage in a mix of activities to bring in sufficient
food and income, and to cover their bets should one activity not pan out.
C. Sturgeon.- Post-socialist
Property Rights for Akha in China: What is at Stake?
This article describes resource access conflicts in south-western China
as a socialist regime was legislated away in favour of a socialist market
economy.. The discussion is framed around two contradictions and one inconsistency.
C. Sturgeon.- Quality
Control and the Loss of the Commons.
paper examines the local village elections held in 2000 in Mengsong, a
administrative village in China. The elections are a focal point for exploring
the converging effects of a number of current national policies and representations
of people and the environment.
research is on the feasting of the Akha of Thailand, in the villages of
Mae Salep and Sam Soong. My methodology consisted of participant observation
and household interview
the people through the trees: Community based ecotourism in Northern Thailand.
Simon Fraser University. 2000
contrast to popular conventional trekking tours that dominate the Northern
Thai tourist industry, this thesis explores community based ecotourism,
one of the alternative strategies currently being used among highlang
Kui .- Changes
in land use in response to socio-economic changes in Xishuangbanna, People's
Republic of China
Dai people cultivate more intensive on paddy land than the other two ethnic
groups, Hani and Jinuo villagers produce more subsistence crops on upland
than Dai; and deforestation is most serious in the Hani village than in
those of Dai and Jinuo. The evidence shows that the great differences
in traditional land use among Dai, Jinuo and Hani have gradually disappeared.
Gloria Ngar-Yan.- Conversations
with a loved one: poetry, melody and social change in Hani dialogue songs.
The University of British Columbia, 2000
are two main types of male-female dialogues: those performed between lovers
and those performed between siblings. The varied historical and contemporary
social contexts in which these songs are performed give rise to multiple
interpretations of song texts and to variations in the structuring of
a songs thematic content.
Free books about the Hani- Akha.
W. Lewis.- Ethnographic
notes on the Akhas of Burma I. 1969
Akhas, religion involves about everything that has to do with ancestors,
rice and spirits. they use the term for ancestors (a poe a pi) and God
( a poe mi yeh) almost synonymously. When carefully questioned they will
differentiate, but in practice there is a thin, if not at times almost
invisible line dividing them.
W. Lewis.- Ethnographic
notes on the Akhas of Burma II. 1969
Akha in 1905 as seen by Fred W. Carey:
is an extraordinary variety of them, as they are divided into clans, and
again into families. The women of each family have adopted a different
head-dress, and by this distinctive mark one may know them apart.
- Bibliographic materials
Bibliography of the Hani
W. Lewis.- Akha
Oral Literature. White Lotus. Bangkok. 2002
and Legends, occupying half of the book, is
the most interesting. It provides fine examples of a tradition of story
telling closely related to that of other peoples linguistically related.
W. Lewis and Bai Bibo.- Hani
book provides some interesting information about the Hani culture, but
drawing materials from different sources, lacks a sense of harmony, of
being a single book and not a patchwork of different materials.
Bibliography of the Hani nationality
Hani in the Art, art of the Hani
China photo exhibitions
working women of the Aini: the Aini or Akha live in the mountains of the tropical
region of Xishuangbanna. As in many agricultural societies the women perform
most of the works.
exhibitions about the Akha/Hani: Some of the best photo
exhibitions in Chinese webpages.
Films and Video
Films about the Hani/Akha nationality: Some films produced
in the last years that try to show Akha society and the challenges it
will face in the future.
- Soul of the
Corn- Documentary film: The film depicts the last places
where the Hani people still cultivate fallow lands with the traditional
slash and burn method. The director, himself a Hani and a painter started
painting all the process of the slash and burn cycle.
films about the Hani/Akha: After 1949 revolution, there
are some films shoot in the People's Republic of China focused in the
life and culture of the Hani nationality.
dvds and vcds about the Hani nationality
Image of the the Hani nationality in the cinema
to Hani lands: The best place to know a little about the Hani culture is Yuanyang County and its famous terraced fields. In the mountains of this county, generations of Hani farmers have worked the mountain surface to make possible rice agriculture. To do it they slowly terraced the whole mountain, from the summit to the bottom.