The Lhoba Nationality

Name: Lhoba, Luoba. Mishi, Apatani (out of China)

Population: 3,000 in China, many more in India, Myanmar and Bhutan.

Localization: In the Southern border of Tibet Autonomous Region. Zayu, Menyu, Medog, Mainling and Lhunze counties. Most of the population of these ethnic groups inhabits northeast India, living also in Myanmar and Bhutan.

The Lhoba name include a number of peoples with a small presence in China whose language belong to the Tani cluster of languages (except the Yidu) of the Tibeto-Burman family. Most of the population of these peoples lives across the Chinese borders, in India (Assam and Arunachal Pradesh), Burma and Bhutan. Some ethnic groups included in this name are:

- Abors (some scholars say is the former name of the Adi). Usually live in the mountains, along the Dihang River until the Tibetan border (and inside Tibet), closely related to the Miris to whon they call: "brothers of the plains." With four main subtribes: Padan, Pasi, Mingyong, Galong

- Adi.

- Akas call themselves Hrusso, Akas is the name the Assamese gave them, meaning "painted2 in allusion of the tattooed faces of theri women)

- Apatani or Apa Tani. About 40.000 (most of them in India).

- Bogar or Bokaer.

- Bunnu or Bengru.

- Daflas, called themselves Bangni or Nising (I supposse ar the Chinese Bunni or Bengni)

- Lhopa or Luoba.

- Miris. Call themselves Mishings and were found scattered throught Upper Assam (India) and the extreme southeast of Tibet.

- Mishmish, with four main tribes: Bebejia, Chulikata, Digaru and Miju

- Yidu or Idu.

Introductory Articles

The tiger and its brother man: a Lhoba myth and some thoughts: Long, long time ago, the world was completely black. Absolutely, nothing existed. Then, heaven and earth separated, and the man from the heaven went down to the earth.

The Lhoba (luoba) In China style

The Idu Mishmi Ritual Dance

Idu mishmi Lower dibang valley: One of the most complete articles about them in internet.

About the Apatani

Let us save Tanii: An interesting blog written by one young Apatani, with sections dealing with history, culture, language and literature.



Scholars Researches available in the Web

About the Apatani

Yuri E. Berezkin.- Apa Tanis and the ancient Near East: an alternative model of complex society

For two or three decades the word "chiefdom" has been included in the basic vocabulary of American anthropologist interested in social organization and pre-state societies.

Stuart Blackburn.- Colonial contact in the 'hidden land': Oral history among the Apatanis of Arunachal Pradesh

Drawing on field recordings and recent scholarship on social memor, this article analyses colonial contacts and oral histories in Arunachal Pradesh, in northeast India. It argues that, despite its geographic and cultural isolation Arunachal did not escape the armed conflict that dominated relations between tribes and external authorities during the colonial period.

Stuart Blackburn.- The Journey of the Soul: Notes on Funeral Rituals and Oral Texts in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

Pascal Bouchery.- The Apatani or Tanii

The great majority of them inhabit a small plateau surrounded by mountains in the Lower Subansiri District, popularly known as the Ziro Valley... Apatani villages are permanent and, for the seven original sites, quite old. Some of them such as Hong or Bulla comprise more than 500 houses and straggle over a considerable area

Sanat K. Chakraborty.- Bamboo Flowering in the North-East: Crisis Beckons Opportunities

As alarm sounded across the northeast over the impending fall out of the gregarious bamboo flowering, a group of bamboo experts was told to visit Ziro, there they learned about the Apatanis, who developed an indigenous method of growing monopodial bamboo, which never flowered.

Chandra Prakash Kala.- Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India

This paper investigates the wealth of medicinal plants used by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Apatani have traditionally settled in seven villages in the Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan region of India.

Takhe Kani.- Myth Associated With the Apatani Textile Culture

The Apatanis of Arunachal are not only famous for their remarkable achievement of permanent terrace-wet-rice cultivation perfected by the indigenous irrigation system and fish-cum-paddy culture but also for their handicraft and handloom works. Their products, exuberant in colour, play a significant role in the socio-economic and socio-religious development of the Apatani society.

P.S. Ramakrishnan.- AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY- Apatani Wet Rice Cultivation: A Highly Evolved Traditional Agro-ecosystem.

The present paper looks at one of the most advanced traditional wet rice cultivation done by the Apatanis in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeastern India, in the context of valley cultivation as a land use system in the region.

About the Idu

Jonomo Rondo.- Customary Laws of Idu Mishmi - A Profile

The Idu Mishmi of Arunachal is one of the major tribes having some distinctive cultural characteristics of their own. There having a council of elders popularly called "Abela", which is of different status, governs their society. The "Abela" is responsible for maintaining peace and harmony among the Idu Society

Free books about the Lhoba

Fürer-Haimendorf, C. von.- The Apa Tanis and Their Neighbours. London, 1962. Routledge And Kegan.

In my recent book A Himalayan Tribe: From Cattle to Cash , I described in detail the transformation of the Apa Tanis during the years which followed the establishment of permanent links with the Indian administration in 1944 and 1945, and in this context I shall concentrate on the circumstances which account for the differences between the fortunes of the Apa Tanis and the fate of the tribal societies discussed in the foregoing chapters of this volume.

Basic Bibliography of the Lhoba:

Some Books about the Apatani

The Apatani monster: The Apa Tani assert that their valley was originally a great lake. When their forefathers set to work draining the valley and clearing the surrounding jungle, they came upon terrifying giant lizards.

Photo Exhibitions

Ethnic China photo exhibitions
More Photo exhibitions


Lhoba Nationality music
A guide to download their music

Films and Video

Documentary Films about the Apatani

Available dvds and vcds about the Lhoba
Image of the the Lhoba in the cinema

Art and Handicrafts

The Lhoba in the art
Art Exhibitions


Travel to Lhoba lands

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