Chinese books about the Naxi


- Anonymous.- Lubai lurao (Yunnan minjian wenxue ziliao -6) (Lubai lurao - Materials of the popular literature of Yunnan - 6). Yunnan Branch of China Academy of Social Sciences. 1962. 356 pp.

A long narrative poem of the Naxi here published in seven chapters that possibly include more narrative materials usually not related with it; as the poem of Kaimeijiumin and Zhubentuminpai, whose narration is considered the origin of the wave of suicides that characterized the Naxi until 1949.

- Anonymous.- Naxi zu xianhui diao - Yunnan minjian wenxue ziliao -2) (Two Naxi ballads - Materials of the popular literature of Yunnan - 2) Yunnan Branch of China Academy of Social Sciences. 1962. 202 pp.

This book includes two long narratives antiphonal ballads: The encounter of the fish and water, and Encounter of the Bee and the Flower, translated to Chinese verse.

- Anonymous.- Naxi Dongba guji yi zhu (Old documents of the Naxi Dongba translated and annotated) Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming. 1986 (vol I), 1987 (vol II), and 1989 (vol III)

These three volumes are part of the collection published by the Yunnan Nationalities Press of the old documents of the nationalities of Yunnan. They are the number 7, 15 and 27 of this series. All the three books are arranged in the same way: first there is a black and white writing of the text in Dongba characters in its original format of three lines of pictograms. It follows a phonetic reading of the text and a literal translation; ending with a literary translation of the Dongba text, with some notes at the end of every text.

The first volume include three basic texts of the Naxi Dongba: Lubai Lurao, Chongbai Chongzha and Great Ceremony to Invite Spirits and Deities of the Wind, part of the Harlaluku ceremony for the young Naxi suicides that lasted for several days and required the participation of several Dongbas.

The second volume includes two important texts: The Redemption of souls offering a horse and Lamu Mengtu.

The third volume has five texts: The war between Dong and Shu, and four ceremonies to avert bad fortune.

- Bai Gengsheng.- Secai yu naxi zu minsu (Colors and customs of the Naxi nationality). Documents on Social Sciences Publishing House. Beijing. 2001. 312 pp.

In one people as the Naxi where their own name denote color ("Na" means "black" in Naxi language) and one of their most important myths is "The battle between Black and White", colors have a very important symbolic meaning. Unfortunately previous to the publishing of this book, this aspect of Naxi culture had been scarcely researched. In many historical chronicles the black color present in their name in opposed to the "white" present in the name they give the Tibetans. Other peoples related with them have also black in their name. Some of them can be the descendants of the "Wuman or black savages" of the Chinese chronicles.

The author researches the concept, name and pictographs for the colors among the Naxi; the colorants they use. Many geographical accidents also have the color as part of its name. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the study of the colors in the Dongba pictographs. The fifth to the colors in Naxi etiquette; that is, the meaning of the colors in the petition for a baby, the born of a new person, the wedding and funerals. The meaning of the different colors in the Naxi traditional dress is the object of the next chapter, a chapter that ends explaining the relationship between the colors and the five elements. The symbolism of the colors in the civil and religious Buddhist buildings; the importance of them in the different practices of divination; egg, chicken bone, bagua, etc; the colors and the space, as used in the Dongba rituals; the colors in the images of supernatural beings are dealt in the following chapters. The book ends with a summary of the variegated meaning of the colors to the Naxi people.

- Bai Gengsheng.- Dongba shenghua yanjiu (Researches on the Dongba mythology) Documents on Social Sciences Publishing House. Beijing.1999. 431 pp.

One of the most detailed studies on Naxi mythology affirms that the main characteristics of Naxi mythology are its relationship to a religious tradition, to the literary works of the Dongba priests, its poetic style and its artistic value. Mr. Bai begin his book making a historic classification of the more than 1,500 Naxi deities, which he divide in the deities of the old system, adapted from the social structure of Naxi original society.

A review of this book

- Bai Gengsheng.- Naxi zu fengsu zhi (Naxi nationality folklore). Central University of Nationalities Press. 2001. 202 pp.

In this book Bai Gengsheng introduces a detailed account of the Naxi traditional customs. The first chapter consists of a monthly description of the festivals and ceremonies of the Naxi people along the year; altogether 30 ceremonies and festivals are introduced. In the second we know about the life cycle of the Naxi people, from the ceremonies and traditions related to the born of a new baby, to the marriage and funeral ceremonies. The third, treating the religion of the Naxi, it introduces the different religions of the Naxi, both original and imported, their nature cults, spirits worship, beliefs in demons, cult to their ancestors and magic practices. Trade and communication in Naxi lands are described in the fourth chapter; productive life, including economic activities, custom, food, beverage and architecture, are dealt in the fifth; laws, taboos and other regulations in he sixth; literature and art in the seventh; and games and entertainments in the last one.

- Bai Gengsheng.- Dongba shenhua xiangzheng lun (Essays on symbolism in Dongba mythology). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming. 1998. 258 pp.

The book begins with a short theoretical introduction to the myth and symbolism and the symbolism in the Dongba myths. Then it goes on with detailed analysis of the symbolism of the turtle, mountain, trees, stones, eyes, the sacred see, the colors and the bridges in the Dongba mythology of the Naxi.

- Bai Gengsheng and He Zixin.- Yu zhen jin sheng tang dongba (Collected papers of the International Conference of Research on Dongba Art and Culture) Documents on Social Sciences Publishing House. Beijing. 2002

A book with the Chinese text of all the 66 papers presented in this academic meeting held in 1999 in Lijiang

- Bai Gengsheng.- Naxi wenhua (Naxi culture). New China Press. 1993. 148 pp

- Bai Gengsheng and Yang Fuquan.- Guoji Dongba wenhua yanjiu jicui (Collection of international researches on the Dongba culture). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming. 1993. 356 pp.

Bu Jinsong.- Naxi dongba wenhua yaoji ji chuancheng gailan (A survey of Naxi Dongba Culture Books and Inheritance). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming, 1999, 248 pp.

The fist chapter is a dictionary of the main books about Dongba Culture; the second about the inheritors of Dongba Culture, the dongba priests; the third about the researchers on Dongba culture, and the Inheritance institutes of Dongba culture.

- Cheng Lie.- Dongba ji tian wenhua (The cult to heaven among the Dongba). Yunnan Peoples Press. 2001. 332 pp.

A detailed analysis of the different aspects of the Sacrifice to Heaven among the Naxi's Dongba, maybe one of the oldest and most important ceremonies of the Naxi people. After a description of the main elements and deities involved in this ceremony, the author makes a comparative analysis of this ceremony among the Naxi and among other nationalities in China, including the old ceremonies of the Han Chinese. The last chapter compares this ceremony with others of the same nature out of China.

- Dong Shaoyu.- Lijiang xian zhongdian xin Naxi zu dongba jiao diaocha (New researches on the Dongba religion of the Naxi). Kunming. 1982. 109 pp.

Copy of the mimeo manuscript of this researcher, where he introduces the origin and history of the Naxi, and the main aspects of the Dongba religion, origin, development and Dongba script.

- Duan Zengqing.- Shuozhai Luoge de zujin (On the tracks of J.F. Rock in Lijiang). Lijiang Ribao.1999. 224 pp

This book follows the steps of J. F. Rock, the main modern researcher on Naxi culture.

Fang Guoli and He Zhiwu.- Naxi zu xiangxing wenzi pu (Chart of the pictographic characters of the Naxi nationality). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 2005. 646 pp.

The classical introduction of the Naxi pictographic script, with an analysis of 1340 Naxi pictographs, plus a list of the more widely used phonetic pictograms and an introduction to the usage of these pictographs.

- Fu Ba.- Naxi ren (Naxi people). Chengdu Cartographic Publishing House. 1993. 193 pp.

The book, subtitled as "Collected writings on travel and folklore" is a selection of essays by this Naxi polifacetic man who engaged in different works along the years. The book is divided in five chapters: fishing and hunting, local customs, folklore, typical scenery, and culture. The chapter about fishing and hunting is interesting as usually is not dealt in books more interested in showing the main points of Dongba culture. The chapter about folklore has seven entries dealing with: love and marriage, girls that don't fear death, walking marriage and kidnap marriage, send the spirits and call the spirits, kill the yearly pig, bull fighting, and days of breeding horses.

Fu Ba.- Qian gu qiren shengming zuihou luchen - Xuxiage yu Lijiang. (The last travel in the life of an eternal eccentric- Xu Xiage and Lijiang). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 1999, 100 pp.

This is a short book about the travels of the famous Ming Dynasty traveler Xu Xiake, which visited Lijiang in 1639. The book traces the itinerary of Xu Xiake, later show draw from his own texts to show how Lijiang was in Xu Xiake times; and the last part of it is tracking the tracks of Xu Xiake in today's Lijiang.

Gao Feng.- Naxi zu san da jisi: ji tian (The three great ceremonies of the Naxi nationality: the cult to heaven). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2001. 70 pp.

A bilingual book, in Chinese and Naxi, explaining the process of this important religious ceremony of the Naxi people.

- Ge Agan.- Dongba zhi shi (The death of the Dongba). 2004

The death of the Dongba as the title says, is the last narrative work of Ge Agan, one of the most prolific researchers on Naxi culture.

- Ge Agan.- Charelien. Nationalities Press. Beijing, 1983. 124 pp

Charelien (known as Congrenlien in other Chinese publications and with different names in the western ones, especially as Tso-za-llu-ghugh in Rock and Jackson works) is one of the most famous and loved Naxi heroes. His history or part of it is usually chanted in most of the Dongba rituals, being an indispensable part of the Worship to Heaven ceremony. Here is translated to Chinese one verse version of his myth.

- Ge Agan.- Dongba qu bu wenlun (A study of Dongba bone divination). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming. 1999. 210 pp.

This study introduces the old custom of divination with bones among the Dongba that are performed heating the scapula of cows or ox. The second chapter is a visual probe of the way this divination is carried on; in the third three Dongba books about this kind of divination are translated to Chinese; the fourth is a comparative study of the divination method among the Naxi and among the Shang Dynasty Chinese as known from Yinxu site; the five the author tries to find a clue on the ethnic origin of the Naxi relying upon their bone divination; the sixth relates the goddess of divination Pansishamei with the origin of this technique; the seventh establishes a possible relationship between the Dongba bone divination and divination methods among the Chinese; and the final chapter suggest in which way divination influenced the priestly culture of the Naxi.

- Ge Agan.- Dongba shenxi yu dongwu wupu (Dongba deities and Dongba dance). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming. 1992. 240 pp.

Dance is one of the most important activities of the Dongba priests of the Naxi. All the ceremonies performed by a Dongba priest have a dance s¨¦ance included. This book is a complete study of the relationship between the Dongba deities and the dance of the Dongba priests, explaining the origin of the Dongba dance, the different kinds of dance and its movements. The second part of the book emphasizes the search for the origin of Dongba dance, pointing to its similitude with some Lamaistic rituals. The third part introduces the present situation and conservation of Dongba dance. In an interesting appendix, some books dealing with Dongba dance are translated to Chinese.

- Ge Agan.- Naxi zu dongba wenxue jicheng - Ji Tian guge (Collected literary works of the Naxi Dongba - Old songs to worship heaven). Popular Literature Press. 1988, 310 pp

All the texts chanted during the celebration of worship to heaven, the most important ceremony of the Naxi people, are translated here to the Chinese language.

Geng Qin.- Naxi fengsu dongba gushi (Dongba tales about the Naxi customs). Lijiang. 1999. 189 pp

A selection of Naxi folk tales, most of them related to different Naxi folk custom: worship of heaven, relation with nature, funeral customs, etc.

Guo Dalie.- Naxi zu fengqing lu (Records of Naxi nationality folklore). Sichuan Nationality Press. Chengdu. 1998. 376 pp

The book is arranged in several sections dealing with the yearly cycle of the Naxi, their ceremonies, music, dance and arts, economic life, main personages, ethnic ties of friendship, religion and beliefs. In each section the wide variety of customs that are traditional to naxi living in different parts of their territory is displayed showing a cultural richness sometimes no sufficiently emphasized.

Guo Dalie and He Zhiwu.- Naxi zu shi (History of the Naxi Nationality). Sichuan Nationalities Press. Chengdu. 1994, 638 pp

After a short introduction about the basic facts of the Naxi nationality, the book deals with the origin and social structure of the old naxi society; the Naxi during the Tang and Song dynasties; the economic and social life of the Naxi in the old times; the Naxi society in Yuan times and the establishment of the tusi system; the Mu family tusi in Ming dynasty Lijiang; the end of the tusi system in Qing dynasty Lijiang; the situation of other Naxi tusis in Ming and Qing dynasties; the development of Naxi society in modern times; and customs and moral characters of the Naxi.

Guo Dalie and Yang Shiguang.- Dongba wenhua lunji (Research on Naxi Dongba culture). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1985. 504 pp

About forty scholarly papers by some of the most important Chinese researchers on Naxi Dongba culture.

Guo Dalie and Yang Shiguang.- Dongba wenhua lun (Research on Naxi Dongba culture). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1991. 692 pp

The 50 papers included in this big compilation of Dongba studies were written for the most renamed scholars in China; they cover so wide specter of contents that could be fairly considered an encyclopedia of Dongba culture. Even with the same English name that the previous papers collected by the same authors, the content is different.

- He Baolin.- Yuangu liulai de shenquan - dongba wenhua yu naxi zu (A sacred spring of old origin - Dongba culture of the Naxi). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2004, 314 pp

An analysis of different aspects of the Dongba culture with interesting chapters as: the animal myths and their ancestors, the relationship between of Naxi and old Chinese myths, production of Dongba myths, the Dongba culture and Naxi society, and the Dongba culture and the Naxi nationality before and after the Tang dynasty.

- He Baolin.- Naxi xiangxing wenzi shuxie mingxin siyu qinchang. (Appreciate the Naxi popular sayings in pictographic writing) Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2004. 254 pp.

A collection of the most famous Naxi popular proverbs written in Naxi pictograms; arranged in chapters about love, moral, life, study, etc.

He Jianquan.- Lijiang zhi you (Travel to Lijiang). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming, 1998. 136 pp.

A travel manual describing the most interesting places around Lijiang: scenery, customs, culture, special products and touristic services are described in this book.

He Jiren and Jiang Zhuyi.- Naxi yu jian zhi (Brief introduction to Naxi language). Nationalities Press. Beijing, 1985.

Sounds, lexicon, grammar, dialects, pictographic writing and a vocabulary of the eastern and western dialects with Chinese. This was one of the first introductions to Naxi language. Especially interesting are the chapters dealing with their pictographic script and with the Naxi dialects, which show that the Naxi and Moso are not mutually intelligible, as they are in fact two different languages.

He Pinzheng.- Yiyu zhi shen de letu - Lijiang bihua ji xiangguan minsu (Paradise of gods of foreign lands - Lijiang frescos and related customs) Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming, 1999. 92 pp-

The frescoes of the Ming and Qing dynasties preserved in some temples in Baisha and Shuhe show a blend of ideas, artistic and religious traditions, and mythic personages. The author here analyzes the history of the frescoes and the folklore around them.

- He Shaoying.- Naxi zu wenhua shi (A Cultural History of the Naxi Nationality). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2001. 356 pp

One of the leading Naxi scholars uses Chinese and Western sources to write one of the last general treaties about the Naxi people, dealing with the different aspects of their life and culture.

He Yaohua and Yang Fuquan.- Lijiang Yulongshan quyu cunzhai fazhan yu shengtai diaocha (Research in village development and ecology on Lijiang Yulongshan area). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1998.

A research on several villages in the Yulongshan area, describing first their structure and history, and later how the development of the last years is changing the natural environment around them.

He Yunfeng.- Naxi zu yinyue shi (History of the music of the Naxi nationality) Central Academy of Music. 2004, 392 pp.

This book is the product of many years of fieldwork, specialised research and collection of material by this Naxi scholar.

- He Zhiwu.- Ji feng yishi ji mupai huapu (Painted woods in the ceremony to worship the wind). Yunnan Peoples Press. 1992. 151 pp.

The first pages of the book are nice colour images of the painted woods the Dongba shamans use in the Ceremony for Worship the Wind. The rest of the book explores the art, content and symbolism of this sacred paintings.

He Zhiwu.- Naxi zu minge yi zhu (Naxi folk songs translated and annotated). Yunnan Peoples Press. 1995. 446 pp.

This is an exhaustive study of the popular songs of the Naxi. Every song included has its original spelling and its Chinese translation. The book is arranged with chapters dealing with the main types of songs: love songs, sorrow songs, nature songs, children songs and even socialist songs.

He Zhiwu.- Naxi Dongba wenhua (Naxi's Dongba culture). Jilin Education Press. 1989. 246 pp.

The book introduces the Dongba culture; its history, contents, art, myths and scripts. The author proposes that its relationship with Naxi nationality makes the Dongba script an authentic encyclopedia of Naxi classical knowledge.

He Zhiwu.- Naxi dongba jing dian xuanze (Selected dongba scriptures of the Naxi). 1983. 159 pp

Chinese translation of about thirty of the most important Naxi myths.

He Zhiwu.- Jinqu xiangshang de naxihu (Enterprising and progressive Naxi nationality) Yunnan Youth Publisher House. Kunming. 1987. 126 pp.

A short introduction to the basic points of the Naxi life and Dongba culture.

- He Zhonghua ang He Shangli.- Naxi dongba shengdi minjian wenxue xuan (Selections of the popular literature of the sacred place of the Naxi Dongba). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming. 1991. 146 pp

This is a selection of myths, legends, folk tales and ballads of the Dongba priests of the Naxi nationality in their most sacred place: Baidi in Zhongdian County (now Shangrila); It starts with the local version of the history of Chongrenlien (Descent of man)

He Zhonghua and Yang Shiguang.- Naxi zu wenxue shi (History of the literature of the Naxi Nationality). Sichuan Nationalities Press. Chengdu. 1992. 830 pp

The vast corpus of Naxi literary creations is arranged in this book in a chronological (and speculative) way. The first chapter treats about the oral literature, and includes poems whose thematic seems old, and myths about the origin of natural things, as sun, moon, stars, etc. The second chapter is a long study about the origin and flourishing of the Dongba literature, with detailed analysis of the three main works: Descent of Man, War between White and Black, and Lubailurao. The third is about the origin and development of Naxi popular literature. The fourth one about the new literature and the fifth and last chapter introduces the Naxi socialist literature.

- Lei Hongan.- Yunnan sheng Zhongdian xian sanba gongshi naxi zu zongjiao diaocha (Researches on the religion of the Naxi nationality in Sanba village of Zhongdian County) Yunnan Nationalities Institute. 1982. 98 pp

In the area where the Dongba culture is thought was originated, the main part of this report is a detailed description of the main ceremonies of the Dongba religion.

-Li Guowen.- Dongba wenhua yu naxi zhexue (Dongba culture and Naxi philosophy). Yunnan Peoples Press. 1991. 270 pp

The author makes a study of the philosophical concepts of the Naxi as preserved in the Dongba classics, with a first chapter explaining the concept of space and time in the old naxi culture; the yin yang concept among the ancient Naxi culture; the old concept of universe; the origin of the human beings in their old texts; the theory of the five elements; the bagua of the frog among the Naxi.

- Li Guowen.- Ren shen zhi mei - Dongba jisi mianmian guan (Intermediaries between men and gods - A view of every aspect of the Dongba priests). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming. 1993. 248 pp

With the following chapters: Dongba old denominations, Dongba masters, Dongba transmission, structure of the Dongba knowledge, division of works and position among the dongbas, historic materials about the dongba and daba priests, pictographic script of the dongbas. The book finish with a long comparative study of the dongba priests in different places: Zhongdian, Lijiang, Yongsheng, Ninglang, Weixi, Muli and Yanyuan.

- Li Guowen.- Dongba wenhua cidian (Dongba culture dictionary). (With color illustrations) of Yunnan Education Publishing House. Kunming. 1997. 270 pp.

Arranged as a classical dictionary with short entries for every concept dealt on, the book is arranged in several sections which include the main characteristics of Dongba culture: Sacred instruments, pictographic characters, main masters and scriptures, gods and demons, ceremonies, magic and divination, art of the dongbas, most commonly seen place and people's names.

Li Jinchun and Wang Chengquan.- Naxi zu (The Naxi nationality). Nationalities Press. Beijing, 1984

A short book that introduces the main aspects of Naxi culture: environment, history, marriage traditions, the family and the clan, the Dongba pictographs, the ethnic science and literature, art, education, funeral customs and traditional festivals.

- Li Xi.- Lijiang Dongba wenhua bowuguan lun wenji (Lijiang Dongba Cultural Museum - A Collection of Theses) Yunnan Peoples Press. 2002. 219 pp

Twenty papers about the Museum of Dongba Culture and the Dongba culture of the Naxi nationality.

Li Xi.- Naxi xiangxing wen guji (Old pictographic documents of the Naxi) Yunnan Peoples Press. 2003. 221 pp

This book contains the Dongba pictographic script text of some of the most important Dongba ceremonies: The sacrifice to Heaven, the origin of the human beings, ceremonies to the hungry demons, to the god of the pigs, etc.

- Lijiang Culture Office.- Naxi zu minjian gequ jicheng (A collection of popular songs of the Naxi nationality). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 1995. 294 pp.

This book introduces the different types of Naxi folk songs, and the Chinese translation of the most popular among them: working songs, customs songs, dance songs, baby songs, Dongba songs and Ahabala songs.

Lijiang Culture Office - Yunnan Naxi zu, Pumizu minjian yinyue. (Popular music of the Naxi and Pumi nationalities in Yunnan). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming, 1985. 236 pp.

The book begins with an overview of the music of the Naxi and the Pumi. Then there are some hundreds popular songs of these minorities arranged in the Naxi section as: new life songs, work songs, love songs, custom songs, children and dongba songs. This section ends with some musical notations to the Jew's harp, the lusheng and the suona. The few pages about the Pumi music include some notations to the Pumi and Naxi flute.

Lijiang team of research in folk literature.- Naxi zu wenxue shi (chugao). (The history of the Naxi literature - first draft) Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1960. 426 pp

This book attempts to design a chronological history of the Naxi literature. The old literature would comprise the works created before 1279; it would include some of the classical myths of the Dongba as "The descent of man" or "Labailushao". The second division, from 1279 to 1927, includes most of the popular literature of the Naxi. The third comprises only the Naxi literature under the rule of the National Party; and the fourth the Naxi literature after 1949 revolution.

- Mu Lichun.- Dongba wenhua xiemi (Secrets of the Dongba culture) .Yunnan Peoples Press. 1995. 425 pp.

With the purpose of making understandable the Dongba culture of the Naxi, Mu Lichun selects some of its basic concepts: Ssu as life god, Gabug and the origin of Dongba rituals, annotations to worship heaven ceremony, notes about the meaning of the Naxi New Year, marriage and funeral customs, the meaning of the crow, magpie, gate gods and white stone among the Naxi, the relationship of the Dongba religion with outside religions, and the symbolic meaning of some Naxi everyday objects.

- Mu Lichun.- Lijiang mingsheng chuanshuo (Legends of famous places in Lijiang). Nationalities Press. Beijing. 1996

As the title explicates the author collects and translate to Chinese legends about the most outstanding features of Lijiang geography (Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, Tiger Leaping Gorge, Elephant Mountain, etc) and human culture (Sanduo festival, fire funeral, etc).

- Mu Lichun.- Lijiang Liyou Bolan (Readings about Lijiang tourism). Dehong Nationalities Press. 1998

Half of this book explains the most interesting touristic places in and around Lijiang. The other half consists of short cultural introductions to the highlights of Naxi culture; as Naxi food and drink, ceremonies, festivals, religions, taboos, and so on.

- Mu Lichun.- Yulong di san guo (The third kingdom of Yulong). 1995

A new edition of a long poem published in 1956, for many years forbidden on charge of being the cause of the death of many young Naxi.

Mu Lichun and Yang Zhonglu.- Dongba jing gushi ji (Collected tales of the Dongba Classics). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 2003. 442 pp.

About fifty tales, including some of the most important to understand the Naxi culture, are extracted from the Dongba scriptures and translated to Chinese in this book; undoubtedly a book that would provide new horizons to the researchers.

- Sha Li.- Duoqing de Dongba jing (Passionate Dongba script) Yunnan University Press. 1998. 200 pp.

About 20 articles about different aspects of the Dongba classics, the position of the women, etc.

- Song Taolin.- Muli Eya - Ronghua zai jinshajiang hunpo zhong de yisu (Eya County in Muli - A Strange melting in the soul of the Jinshajiang ). Foreign Languages Press. Beijing, 2005. 162 pp.

Eya is one of the most isolated places in China. In this place live from more than 400 years ago some Naxi communities that slowly developed many cultural characteristics. This book explores geography, history, its relation with Muli kingdom, the travels of J.F. Rock, the peculiar customs of the people living in Eya, their ceremonies and the nature of the local Dongba religion.

- Xu Hongbao.- Lijiang Naxi zu hunmai lisu (Wedding and funeral customs of the Naxi nationality in Lijiang). Yunnan Nationalities Institute. 1981. 27 pp

A research on the main aspects of the wedding, family life, funeral and traditional festivals of the Naxi nationality in Lijiang.

Xuan Shaowu.- Cha ma gudao qin li ji (The death march of the Tea trade caravan road). Yunnan Nationalities Press, Kunming, 2001. 108 pp

An account of one of the last travels of a tea caravan in the route from Lijiang to Lhasa.

Yang Deyan, He Fayuan and He Yuncai.- Naxi zu gudai wudao he wu pu. (Old dancing and dancing sketches of the Naxi nationality) Culture and Art Publishing House. Beijing. 1990. 300 pp

After an historic introduction to the Naxi music and dance, the book explores the nature of Dongba dancing, with a description of different kinds of dancing performed in Dongba ceremonies. The last part is an introduction to some Dongba pictographic scriptures dealing with the sacred dancing, and their translation to Chinese.

- Yang Fuquan.- Gu wangguo de wang zu houyi (Descendants of a prominent family in an old kingdom). Yunnan University Press. 2001. 104 pp

The history of one of the most prominent families among the Naxi: the Yang family clan. After the family was settled in Lijiang about 700 years ago, its members carried on important works in the fields of education and medicine. This is the family of the author of this book, who writes then the history of his own family.

- Yang Fuquan.- Shen shan xiade guwang - Zuo jin naxi ren de xinling he jiayuan (An old kingdom at the foot of the sacred mountain - Entering the spirit and the home of the Naxi people). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming, 1999. 110 pp

This is a short introduction to Lijiang city and Naxi culture. The first chapter is about Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, sacred mountain to the Naxi and at the same time a death mountain, as it was the placed suicide lovers choose in the past to put an end to their lives; sacred scriptures and priests introduce Naxi religion; one thousand old city deals with Lijiang old city; the brotherhood between men and nature describes the sacred links between men and nature and the Naxi people concept of protect the environment; two chapters treat the art of the Naxi, and the last one the position of the women in Naxi culture and society.

Yang Fuquan.- Miji gu yun - Dongba wenhua yishu diantang manyou (Extraordinary book of old rimes - Roaming in the palace of the Dongba art and culture). Yunnan Nationalities Press. Kunming, 1999. 94 pp

In this book the author analyze all the different artistic components of the Dongba religious culture: the artistic value of the paintings and carvings that are part of their ritual ceremonies; of their music and dance and of the poetic value of the text chanted.

Yang Fuquan.- Duoyuan wenhua yu naxi shehui (Distant cultures and the Naxi society). Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1998. 164 pp

In this book the author studies the foreign elements that can be found in Naxi society. The Dongba culture as an all is first examined, later are the wu culture, Buddhist and Taoist influences, Chinese and Confucian influences; and a brief summary of the changes in everyday life that all these outside influences brought to the Naxi people.

Yang Fuquan.- Hun Lu (The road of the souls) Haitian Publishers. Nanchang, 1999. 170 pp.

In his study of the traditional Naxi Road to Heaven paintings, which depict the obstacles that the soul of the dead will find in his way to the ancestors realm, Yang Fuquan try to frame these paintings in the wide concepts of life and death among the Naxi, the return to the ancestors' land and the sacred cycle of the life in nature.

Yang Fuquan and Bai Gengshen.- Guoji Dongba wenhua yanjiu jicui (A collection of the best international studies on Dongba culture.) Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1993. 366 pp.

Some of the most important papers of western and Japanese scholars about the Dongba culture are translated in this book.

Yang Shiguang.- Ai shen zai weixiao (Love the gods in a smile). Sichuan University Press. Chengdu. 1989. 278 pp

Some literary works of this Naxi writer.

- Yang Shiji.- Zuo Lijiang (Go Lijiang). Yunnan Peoples Press. 1999. 96 pp.

A short travel guide to Lijiang.

- Yang Zhengwen.- Dongba shendi-Baishuidai (Dongba sacred place - Baishuidai) Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1999. 254 pp.

It is said that Baishuidai is the place where the Dongba religion was born, and where it developed during the history of the Naxi people. In fact, during many centuries no Dongba priest can achieve name without spend some time learning in Baishuidai.

Yang Zhengwen.- Zui houde yuanshi chongbai - Baidi dongba wenhua (The last place of the original religion - the Dongba culture in Baidi). Yunnan Peoples press. Kunming, 1999. 286 pp

Baidi is the sacred place of the Dongba, where this religion is said to have originated, where his founders Dongbashilo and Amishilo retreated to meditate and where every would-be Dongba must spend some time studying. Here the author studies the relationship of different aspects of Dongba religion with this sacred place of Baidi.

- Zhao Shihong.- Dongba wenhua yanjiu sou lunwen xuan ji (Collected essays of the research on Dongba culture). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2003. 400 pp.

A big collection of research papers about the Dongba culture.

- Zhao Zhengxiu.- Naxi xiangxing wen shiyong zi ci zhishe (Explanation of the use of the Naxi pictographic writing) Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2003. 130 pp

A dictionary with 1,640 Dongba pictographic characters explained in Chinese. As other books with the same theme the pictographs are arranged in groups according to their meaning: men, parts of the body, plants, animals, insects, place names, geography, religion, etc.

Zhao Zhenxiu.- Dongba xiangxing wen changyong zici yizhu (Most widely used characters of the Dongba pictographic script) .Yunnan Peoples Press. Kunming, 1996. 96 pp

One thousand pictograms explained in Chinese, arranged in thirteen chapters according to their nature.

Zhao Zhengxiu and Sha Li.- Ayidan - Naxi zu jizhi renwu gushi (Ayidan - Tales of the trickster of the Naxi nationality). Nationalities press, Beijing.1999. 220 pp

About fifty tales of Ayidan, the Naxi trickster, with some black and white drawings.

- Zheng Feizhou.- Naxi Dongba wenzi zisu yanjiu (Research on the elements of Naxi Dongba writing). Nationalities Press. 2005. 224 pp.

A study of the elements and the way they combine to form the Naxi Dongba pictographic characters.

- Zhou Bin. - Dongba wenyi tizi yanjiu (Researches on the form of the Dongba characters) Huadong Normal Press. 2005. 202 pp.

A study of the characteristics and the form of the Dongba characters of the Naxi nationality, with English abstract.

- Zhuo Songxin.- Zuojing Lijiang (Marching into Lijiang). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2001. 265 pp

A nicely illustrated book about the Lijiang region; it include about twenty articles about this region, some of them translated from English (Rock, Goullart) and the same number of color pictures, most of them about the landscaped and places of touristic interest, with some references also to the Taluo people (pp 245-264).

Dongba wenhua lun cong 1 (Collected papers about the Dongba Culture 1). Lijiang. 1991. 138 pp.

Twenty academic papers of twenty leading Chinese scholars about the Dongba culture of the Naxi.

Guanyu naxi yuyan wenzi wenti de huibao (A report of some problems related with the language and script of the Naxi). Kunming. 1957.

One of the first post-1949 revolution studies on Naxi language, writing and dialects.

- Lijiang di er jie guoji dongba yishu jie xueshu yanjiu hui lunwen ji. (Collected papers of the Second international congress on Dongba Art, Lijiang) Yunnan Nationalities Press. 2005. 662 pp.

All the papers presented to the second international Meeting on Dongba art.

- Lijiang luyou zhinan (Tourist guide of Lijiang) Yunnan Peoples Press.1998. 170 pp

A travel guide of Lijiang.

- Lijiang naxi zu zizhixian gaikuang (Overview of Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County). Yunnan Nationalities Press. 1986. 181 pp.

This is a survey of Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County; the book of this classical collection dealing with geography, history, ethnology, and the changes provoked by the arrival of the communist regime at minority lands.

- Naxi zu jian shi jian zhi hebian (Compilation of short history and annals of the Naxi Nationality). Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Beijing. 1963

As preparatory work to what later will be the "Short history of the Naxi nationality" this book share with the later most of the chapters, except that before the final chapters of the "Short history" that deal succinctly with the Naxi culture are included here chapters about the liberation of the Naxi people and the consolidation of the people's government, the land reform, and the building of a socialist society.

- Naxi zu jian shi (Brief history of the Naxi nationality). Yunnan Peoples Press. 1984.

This short volume is part of the series of nationalities knowledge, published along China in the 1980s. The structure of most of these books is similar, a narration of the relationship of the people of this minority (or their forefathers) with the Han Chinese. The chapters are: name, origin and distribution; from original society to slave society; feudal society; the society before liberation; the Naxi people actions against the imperialist and feudal forces; custom and religion; and science, culture and arts.

- Naxi zu minjian gushi jichen juan 1 (Selection of the Naxi nationality folk tales 1). Lijian.1988. 469 pp.

A big compilation of folk tales of the Naxi in Lijiang most of them collected by Mu Lichun. This compilation includes some classical myths, as the Descent of man, some legends about the origin of Naxi cultural items, as their dresses or their gods who protect the gates, about their Ssu gods, geographical accidents, trickster, etc.

- Naxi zu pumi zu geyao jicheng juan 1 (Selected ballads of the Naxi and Pumi nationalities 1) Lijiang. 249 pp.

The Naxi section consists mainly in love ballads with some old songs also included. The ballads included in the Pumi section are classified under the following sections: love ballads, custom ballads, work songs, old songs and new (New China) songs.

- Naxi zu shehui lishi diaocha I, II and III (Researches on the Society and History of the Naxi). Yunnan Nationalities Publishing House. Kunming, 1983, 1986 and 1988.

There are three volumes of the series about the history and society of Chinese national minorities dedicated to the Naxi nationality. They constitute an excellent collection of Chinese academic researches about the Naxi nationality, carried on in the decades before the 1980s.

- Naxi zu wenhua daguan (Overview of the culture of the Naxi nationality) Yunnan Nationalities Press. 1999. 806 pp.

Encyclopedic treatise of the Naxi and Moso cultures, with chapters dealing with the origin and history of the Naxi, their language, religion, customs, ethics, astronomy, literature, science, philosophy, government, medicine, architecture, trade, communications and economy.

Qingzhu Lijiang Naxi zu zizhixian chengli ershi zhou nian (To celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of Lijiang Naxi Autonomous County). Lijiang. 1981. 80 pp

Articles and poems of Naxi intellectuals and artists to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of their autonomous county.

- Shijie wenhua yichang Lijiang gucheng chuantong minju baohu weixiu zhishu shouce (A manual for the conservations and restoration of the traditional residence houses of the old city of Lijiang). 2005. 80 pp.

A manual for the conservations and restoration of the traditional residence houses of the old city of Lijiang, is mainly a technical book, detailing different ways used during the restoration and preservation of the traditional houses in Lijiang Old city; with several hundreds pictures and technical drawings.

- Sichuan sheng Naxi zu shehui lishi diaocha (Researches on the society and history of the Naxi nationality in Sichuan Province). Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences. Chengdu, 1987. 360 pp

Three of the four long papers in this book are about the Moso (or Sichuan Naxi). There is also a long article written by Liu Longchu about the Naxi in Eya (Muli County)

Yanzhe Luokede zuji - Zuojin xianggelila (Along the tracks of Rock- Marching to Shangrila). Lijiang Ribao. 1999. 224 pp

With a lot of old pictures about the Naxi before 1949, the book gathers about thirty papers (some of them translated from English) about the rambles of J.F. Rock in Lijiang, making special emphasis to the references to Shangrila.

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